Teonanacatl

Aqui discutimos micologia amadora e enteogenia.

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Chave para identificação de contaminantes - Chilton, Stamets - TMC

Cygnus X 1

Cogumelo maduro
Cultivador Confiável
Cadastrado
21/01/2005
Mensagens
270
Reputação
5
Pontos de reações
364
Pontos
76
A KEY TO THE COMMON CONTAMINANTS IN MUSHROOM CULTURE


This key is easy to use. Simply follow the key lead that best describes the contaminant at hand. When the key terminates at a specific contaminant, turn to the descriptions immediately following this key and then refer to the photographs and any related genus mentioned. To confirm the identity of any contaminant, compare its sporulating structures with the accompanying microscopic illustrations and/or micrographs.


1a Contaminant parasitizing the mushroom fruitbody (a pathogen) - 2
1b Contaminant not parasitizing the mushroom fruitbody (an indicator) - 7
2a Contaminant causing mushrooms to become watery, slimy, or to have lesions from which a liquid oozes but not covered with a powdery or downy mycelium – 3
2b Contaminant not as above but covering mushrooms with a fine powdery or mildew-like mycelium - 4
3a Droplets forming across the cap and stem but lacking sunken lesions. Mushrooms eventually reduced to a whitish foamlike mass Causal organism not known - " Weepers"
3b Cap not as above but first having brownish spots that enlarge, deepen, and in which a grayish brown slime forms. Mushrooms eventually disintegrate into a dark slimy, oozing mass - Pseudomonas tolassii, Bacterial Blotch, Bacterial Pit
4a Contaminant eventually sporulating as a green mold on the mushroom. Usually preceded by an outbreak of green mold on the casing layer - Trichoderma viride, Trichoderma kontngii “Trichoderma Blotch"
4b Not as above - 5
5a Contaminant appears on the casing soil as a fast running grayish cobweb-like mycelium, enveloping mushrooms in its path. (Spores usually three or more celled and 20 x 5 microns in size. If two celled, not acorn-shaped) - Dactlyium dendroides "Cobweb Mold"
5b Contaminant attacking the mushroom but usually not appearing on the casing layer. (Spores single celled or if two celled, resembling a roughened acorn and measuring much less than above) - 6
6a Contaminant turning young mushrooms into a rotting amorphous ball-like mass from which an amber fluid oozes upon cutting. Stem typically not splitting or peeling. (Spores one and two celled, the latter being darkly pigrnented and acorn-- shaped) - Mycogone pernciosa "Wet Bubble"
6b Contaminant afflicting young mushrooms as described above but those parasitized not exuding amber fluid when cut open. Stem in more mature mushrooms often splitting and peeling, causing the mushrooms to tilt. (Spores one celled). - Verticiliurn malthousei "Dry Bubble"
7a Contaminant in the form of another mushroom whose cap deliquesces (melts) into a blackish liquid with age - Coprinus spp. "Inky Cap"
7b Contaminant not as above 8
8a Contaminant becoming pinkish to reddish to purplish colored in age - 9
8b Contaminant not as above - 14
9a Occurring on compost or the casing layer - 10
9b Occurring on nutrient agar media and on grain - 11
10a Mycelium fast growing, aerial, and never having a frosty texture. Pinkish with spore maturity. (Spores unicellular with nerve-like ridges longitudinally arranged and ellipsoid) - Neurospora sp. "Pink Mold"
10b Mycelium slow growing, appressed, and developing a frosty texture. Often becoming cherry red. (Spores cylindrical and lacking nerve-like ridges} - Geotrichum "Lipstick Mold'
11a Mycelial network of contaminant not well developed, not clearly visible to the unaided eye, often slime-like - 12
11 b Mycelial network of contaminant well defined and easily discernible to the naked eye, not slirne like - 13
12a More frequently seen in agar culture. (Spores produced by simple budding, ovoid, single celled) -the Yeasts see Cryptococcus
12b More frequently seen in grain culture. (Spores produced on a short conidiophore, sickle shaped, and multicelled) - Fusarium "Yellow Rain Mold"
13a Mycelium fast growing and aerial. (Spores with nerve-like ridges and ellipsoid) - Neurospora "Pink Mold"
13b Mycelium typically slow growing and appressed. (Spores two celled, without ridges, and pear-shaped) - Trichothecium sp."Pink Mold"
14a Contaminant slime-like in form - 15
14b Contaminant mycelium-like or mold-like in form - 17
15a Non-motile (not moving spontaneously). Spores relatively large, 4-20 microns in diameter. Not affected by bacterial antibiotics such as gentamycin sulfate (see Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula under Torula)
15b Motile (moving spontaneously). Spores relatively minute, rarely exceeding 2 microns in diameter. Growth prevented by bacterial antibiotics such as gentamycin sulfate - 16
16a Cells rod-like in shape. Gram positive (retaining a violet dye when fixed with crystal violet and an iodine solution) - Bacillus "Wet Spot"
16b Cells variable in shape. Gram negative (not retaining a violet dye when fixed with crystal violet and an iodine solution) – Pseudomonas "Bacterial Blotch"
17a Contaminant mold greenish with spore maturity - 18
17b Contaminant mold blackish with spore maturity - 20
17c Contaminant mold brownish with spore maturity - 24
17d Contaminant mold yellowish with spore maturity - 25
17e Contaminant mold whitish with spore maturity - 28
18a Forming small burrs and usually olive green in color. (Spores lemon shaped, enveloped in a sac-like structure (a perithecium) - Chaetomium olivaceum "Olive Green Mold"
18b Not as above - 19
19a Molds typically blue-green in color. (Conidiophore diverging at apex into multiple chains of lightly pigrnented single celled spores) - Penicillium spp. “Blue Green Mold"
19b Molds typically true green to yellow green in color. (Condiophore swollen at apex and bulb-like (capitate), around which multiple chains of lightly pigrnented single celled spores extend) - Aspergillus spp. "Green Mold"
19c Molds forest green in color. (Conidiophore easily disassembling in wet mounts and difficult to observe under the microscope. Spores single celled, lightly pigrnented, and encased in a mucous-like substance) - Thichoderma spp. "Forest Green Mold"
19d Molds blackish green in color. (Conidiophores branching into few forks at whose ends darkly pigrnented spores form, often two celled.) - Cladosporium spp. "Blackish Green Mold"
20a Mold colony appressed, resembling a dark Penicillium-like mold, but not aerial - 21
20b Mold colony aerial, not Penicillium-like - 22
21 a (Spores elongated and ornamented with ridges, generaly exceeding 20 microns in length and 5 microns in diameter) - Alternaria spp. "Black Mold"
21 b (Spores spherical, not ornamented with ridges, generally less than 5 microns in diameter) -Aspergillus spp. "Black Mold"
22a Most frequently seen on compost. Resembling black whiskers. (Forming a conidiophore that diverges into multiple stalks at whose ends are chains of darkly pigrnented spores) - Doratomyces stemonitis "Black Whisker Mold"
22b Most frequently seen in agar and grain culture. Resembling a forest of dark headed pins. (Forming a sporangiophore consisting of single stalk at whose end a ball-like sporulating structure is attached) - 23
23a Conidiophore appearing swelled at apex; partially covered by a sporulating membrane - Rhizopus "Black Bread Mold" "Black Pin Mold"
23b Conidiophore not swelled as above; apex totally covered by sporulating membrane - Mucor "Black Pin Mold"
24a Mold developing small bead-like masses of cells (easily visible with a magnifying lens). Never producing cup-like fruitbodies. (Darkly pigrnented cells clustered on a mycelial mat; spores lacking)- Papulospora byssina "Brown Plaster Mold"
24b Mold not developing the ball-like clusters of the above. Sometimes producing cup-like fruitbodies. (Spores produced in bunches in a grape-like fashion) - Botrytis "Brown Mold"
25a Mold forming a corky layer between the casing layer and the compost, and mat-like. (Spores borne on short vase shaped pegs) - Chrysosporium luteum "Yellow Mar Disease" "Confetti"
25b Mold not forming a corky layer and appearing mat-like. (Spores not borne in The manner above) -26
26a Not occurring on compost. (Conidiophores short, arising from cushion shaped cells. Spores, if reticulated, appear to be composed of several tightly compacted cells) - Epicoccum "Yellow Mold"
26b Frequently seen on compost but not exclusively so. (Conidiophores not as above. Spores appearing unicellular) - 27
27a Spores large, exceeding 5 microns in diameter, and of two types. Some spherical and spiny, forming singly at the end of individual hyphal branches; others vase shaped arising singly or in loose clusters from an indistinct, hyphal-like conidiophore) – Sepedonium "Yellow Mold"
27b Spores small, less than 5 microns in diameter, ovoid, forming on chains arising from a head-like structure positioned at the apex of a long stalk - Aspergillus spp. "Yellow Mold"
28a Appearing as a dense plaster-like or stroma-like mycelium. (Condiophore brush shaped (pencillate)) - Scopulariopsis "White Plaster Mold"
28b Mycelium not plaster-like. (Conidiophore not brush shaped (pencillate}) - 29
29a Spores forming from hyphae in chains - Monilia "White Flour Mold"
29b Spores absent, not forming from hyphae - Mycelia Sterilia (see also: Mucor and Sepedonium).
------------------------------------------------------------------------

Traduzir esse texto vai ser algo demorado. Mas ele é crucial, sabendo ler um bom inglês quase técnico dá pra ter uma boa idéia do q vc tem em mãos.
 

Cygnus X 1

Cogumelo maduro
Cultivador Confiável
Cadastrado
21/01/2005
Mensagens
270
Reputação
5
Pontos de reações
364
Pontos
76
A idéia é seguir o guia do número um até vc atingir o problema. Muitas coisas são inúteis pros amadores, por exemplo, identificação da espécie pelos esporos usando microscópio, complicado não é, mas dentro do guia tem todos os problemas comum ao cultivo amador, mas ele funciona. Após uma triagem geral, basta consultar os dados técnicos de cada candidato junto com algumas fotos e pimba vc tem o culpado e o método de evitar o problema. Para uma resposta definitiva vc precisa fechar toda uma cadeia dessas, em termos de estudo da morfologia completa do q vc tá identificando, não dá pra pegar só uma foto, q é um pequeno instante, e dizer o q é aquilo com certeza. Lógico q não podemos ser completamente literais e unidimensionais no uso dele... vale o uso do tal bom senso.

Vou tentar uns exemplos: https://teonanacatl.org/attachments/dsc05866-jpg.1767/

1b Contaminant not parasitizing the mushroom fruitbody (an indicator) - 7
9b Occurring on nutrient agar media and on grain - 11
11a Mycelial network of contaminant not well developed, not clearly visible to the unaided eye, often slime-like - 12

12b More frequently seen in grain culture. (Spores produced on a short conidiophore, sickle shaped, and multicelled) - Fusarium "Yellow Rain Mold"

FUSARIUM
Class: Fungi Imperfect
Order: Moniliales
Family: Tubericulariaceae
Common Names: The Brightly Colored Contaminant; Damping Off Disease; or Yellow Rain Mold.
Greek Root: Having the same root as "fusiform", meaning to be swollen in the center and narrowing towards the ends, in reference to the distinctive shape of the conidia.
Habitat & Frequency of Occurrence: Commonly encountered in spawn production and in agar culture. A natural inhabitant of grains (rye, wheat, barley, rice), Fusaria also are found in soils, on living and decaying plants and on decomposing textiles and paper.
Medium Through Which Contamination Is Spread: Air; grain; and casing soil.
Measures of Control: Sufficient sterilization of grain; isolation and proper disposal of contaminated cultures. General hygienic practices and air filtration prevent this contaminant. Increasing ventilation while simultaneously decreasing humidity hinders the proliferation of this potentially dangerous contaminant.
Macroscopic Appearance: Appearing as an extensive, fast growing, and whitish cottony mycelium which can remain whitish or, as in most cases, becomes brightly pigrnented. Fusarium species most frequently seen on grain are shades of pink, purple or yellow.

alternativamente:
14a Contaminant slime-like in form - 15
15a Non-motile (not moving spontaneously). Spores relatively large, 4-20 microns in diameter. Not affected by bacterial antibiotics such as gentamycin sulfate (see Cryptococcus and Rhodotorula under Torula)

CRYPTOCOCCUS
Class: Fungi Imperfect!
Order: Cn/ptococcaies
Family: Cryptococcaceae
Common Names: The Yellowish Brown Yeast; The Carcinogenic Yeast.
Greek Root: From "kryptos" meaning hidden and "kokkus" or berry, for the form of the conidia.
Habitat & Frequency of Occurence: Ubiquitous and common. Cryptococcus species are mostly saprophytic on plant debris, in soils, cereal grains and on bird (pigeon or chicken) droppings.
Medium Through Which Contamination Is Spread: Air and pigeon and/or
chicken wastes.
Measures of Control: Good hygienic practices; elimination of high humidity pockets; removal of supportive substrates; and filtration of air through micron filters.
Macroscopic Appearance: A spherical yeast not forming a pseudomycelium, encapsulated by a cream to brown colored mucus.
 

Cygnus X 1

Cogumelo maduro
Cultivador Confiável
Cadastrado
21/01/2005
Mensagens
270
Reputação
5
Pontos de reações
364
Pontos
76
https://teonanacatl.org/attachments/contaminação-jpg.1230/

Esse já é mais fácil por estar em idade avançada:

1b Contaminant not parasitizing the mushroom fruitbody (an indicator) - 7
7b Contaminant not as above 8
8b Contaminant not as above - 14
14b Contaminant mycelium-like or mold-like in form - 17
17b Contaminant mold blackish with spore maturity - 20
20a Mold colony appressed, resembling a dark Penicillium-like mold, but not aerial - 21

21 a (Spores elongated and ornamented with ridges, generaly exceeding 20 microns in length and 5 microns in diameter) - Alternaria spp. "Black Mold"
21 b (Spores spherical, not ornamented with ridges, generally less than 5 microns in diameter) -Aspergillus spp. "Black Mold"

ALTERNARIA
Class: Fungi Impetiecti
Order: Moniliales
Family: Dematlaceae
Common Name: Black Mold; Gray Black Mold; Black Point.
Latin Root: From "alternus" which means alternating, in reference to the chains of alternating spores, which so characterize this genus.
Habitat & Frequency of Occurrence: Very common in nature, occasionally to frequently encountered in spawn production, and present in large numbers in household dust. Alternaria is infrequently seen on rye grain, and according to Bitner (1972), this contaminant is more prevalent on sorghum than on other grains. Alternaria is one of the major fungal saprophytes on grain, seeds, straw, leaves, rotting fruits and unsalted butter. In Temperate climatic zones, it is more prevalent in the late summer and fall than at any other time.
Medium Through Which Contamination Is Spread: Air.
Measures of Control: Good hygienic habits; maintenance of a low dust level; and filtration of air through micron filters.
Macroscopic Appearance: A rapidly growing rich gray black to blackish mycelium. Alternaria first appears as scattered blackish spots in the spawn jars, soon spreading and overwhelming the mushroom mycelium. On agar, it resembles a black Penicillium-like mold.

ASPERGILLUS
Class: Fungi Imperfect!
Order: Moniliales
Family: Eurotiaceae
Common Name: Green Mold; Yellow Mold; Black Mold
Latin Root: From "aspergilliformis" which means brush-shaped in reference to the shape of the conidiophore.
Habitat & Frequency of Occurrence: Very common in agar and grain culture, and in compost making. Found on most any organic substrate, Aspergillus prefers a near neutral to slightly basic pH. Well used wooden trays and shelves for holding compost are frequent habitats for this contaminant in the growing house.
Medium Through Which Contamination Is Spread: Air.
Measures of Control: Good hygienic practices; removing supportive substrates, especially food residues and spent compost; and filtration of air through micron filters.
Macroscopic Appearance: Species range in color from yellow to green to black. Most frequently, Aspergillus species are greenish and similar to Penidllium. Aspergillus niger, as its name implies, is black; Aspergillus flavus is yellow; Aspergillus davatus is blue-green; Aspergillus fumigatus is grayish green; and Aspergillus veriscolor exhibits a variety of colors (greenish to pinkish to yellowish). These molds, like many others, change in color and appearance according to the medium on which they occur. Several species are thermophilic.

Mas mesmo assim, ainda é impossível dizer precisamente qual é o fungo. Ainda pode ser qualquer coisa... mesmo a descrição sendo bem compatível com a foto, muito outros "molds" estão dentro desse termo "black mold". Por outro lado ter isso ajuda bastante numa pesquisa um pouco mais aprofundada. Se alguém mais quiser tentar, faça-o aqui (inclua ou link a foto) q eu posto a "ficha técnica" do culpado.
 

Law RJ

Cogumelo maduro
Cadastrado
22/10/2005
Mensagens
60
Reputação
0
Pontos de reações
11
Pontos
69
Valeu mesmo pela contribuição!! Vai ser uma mão na roda para muitos. :D

Abraços! :pos:
 

calimba

Cogumelo maduro
Cadastrado
10/02/2005
Mensagens
958
Reputação
2
Pontos de reações
262
Pontos
76
Como sempre uma ótima contribuição Cygnus, quanto mais pessoas como voce mais nosso banco de informaçoes vai crescer! Obrigado!

:pos::D:D
 

Cygnus X 1

Cogumelo maduro
Cultivador Confiável
Cadastrado
21/01/2005
Mensagens
270
Reputação
5
Pontos de reações
364
Pontos
76
Tem muitos outros fóruns por aí q tem muitas fotos de contaminantes acredito q ninguém irá se importar com a reprodução delas, dado o devido crédito e sempre tentando, pelo menos, pedir permissão antes de usar.

Acho q já ripei bastante do conteúdo do Mushroom Cultivator, ripar as fotos seria meio q abusivo, talvez, talvez não, na real quem se importa? Direitos autorais q se danem, ninguém tem propriedade no plano das idéias...

Isso aqui ainda é work in progress, devo traduzir eventualmente, se alguém estiver na pilha, nada te impede. Definitivamente não é o guia ideal para identificação de contaminantes do cultivo amador indoor psilocybiano. Qualquer boa proposta de melhoria, adaptação, reengenharia ou q seja em termos benéficos pra causa... será muito bem apreciada.
 

Night Storm

Cogumelo maduro
Cadastrado
25/11/2005
Mensagens
361
Reputação
0
Pontos de reações
70
Pontos
73
Gente, por favor, desculpem a ignorância, mas eu gostaria que alguem explicasse como funciona a chave, porque naum entendi. Vi os exemplos do cygnus mas num entendi ainda
 

Cygnus X 1

Cogumelo maduro
Cultivador Confiável
Cadastrado
21/01/2005
Mensagens
270
Reputação
5
Pontos de reações
364
Pontos
76
Funciona por exclusão, vc vai simplesmente buscar a descrição q mais se aproximar do problema q vc estiver tendo.
 

mexicano

Cogumelo maduro
Cadastrado
25/01/2010
Mensagens
232
Reputação
0
Pontos de reações
278
Pontos
69
:pos:
Merece uma tradução pra ir direto pra biblioteca.

Neuro, já se encontra a tradução na biblioteca?, vi que este post é bem antigo e muito importante para ajudarmos na identificação dos contaminantes e técnicas de como detê-los e/ou evitá-los.

posta o link aí pra nós moderador;).
 

kodark

Cogumelo maduro
Cadastrado
14/11/2010
Mensagens
54
Reputação
0
Pontos de reações
129
Pontos
44
Ta tudo off.

Se alguém puder colocar on de novo os links, por favor, este tópico é muito útil.

Obrigado.
 
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